Mind Games 2.0

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Phenomenon Versus Theory – Juxtaposing Evolution and Gravity

The phrase “theory of evolution” is sometimes used pejoratively by people who do not want to acknowledge that populations and species of biological organisms evolve. In fact, the legislature of the state in which I reside – New Hampshire – is now considering legislation (e.g., see here and here) “requiring the teaching of evolution as a theory in public schools”. As any scientist will tell you, the meaning of the word theory in science is very different from its common usage.

Pondering this difference got me to thinking about how the theory of evolution stacks up to other more readily accepted scientific theories, at least in the public’s mind. We all have an intuitive understanding of many physical phenomena, and so I wanted to compare how the theory of evolution stacked up against our scientific understanding of something as familiar as, say, gravity.

Gravitation, the attraction of physical objects to one another, is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature. No one would question the phenomenon of gravity. Objects fall back to earth when not supported. But what is the scientific explanation for what causes this phenomenon? Scientific theories are statements of these explanations.

I think most non-scientists would be dumbfounded to find that physics has no single theory of gravitation. Currently, two theories are the main competitors as the explanation for why two objects are attracted to one another, but a number of other theories have been proposed as alternatives to these two, as well. (For a fuller and more nuanced description, see a number of popular books on the latest theories of physics (e.g., books by Brian Greene).)

One theory of gravitation is derived from Albert Einstein‘s general theory of relativity. In general relativity, gravity is imagined to be created by the presence of an object with mass warping the surrounding spacetime, which will in turn change the trajectory and velocity of other objects (even massless particles like photons of light) in the affected part of spacetime. Thus, gravity in Einstein’s conception is the result of how objects influence the fundamental geometry of space and time.

The other main theory of gravitation is derived from quantum mechanics and postulates that gravity results from the exchange of gravitons between two masses. The graviton is an as-yet hypothetical but elementary particle, which means it has never been observed, and no experimental evidence has been generated to suggest its existence.

How could two conceptions of a phenomenon be more different? One re-imagines the geometry of the universe, and the other invokes a particle. The existence of these seemingly incongruous formulations of gravity in the scientific community and the fact that scientists disagree about how to understand gravity does not negate the phenomenon of gravity or the fact that gravity exists.

Now, let’s turn to the theory of evolution. The mechanisms causing evolution are pretty simple and easily understood by anyone. Four different mechanisms cause evolution: genetic mutations, genetic drift, gene flow, and selection in its various forms. In fact, most “theories” describing various specific mechanisms of evolution are simply accounting problems.

When people use the theory of evolution as a pejorative, what they are denying is the phenomenon of evolution and not the theory. Their issue is “does evolution happen” – not “how does evolution happen”. The comparable issue with respect to gravity would be to question whether a rock would fall to the earth if you released your grip on it.

The phenomenon of evolution is slightly more difficult to detect than the phenomenon of gravity, because it must be observed over a somewhat greater expanse of time than a few seconds. However, the evidence is all around us. For example, the new flu strains that infect humans each year result from the evolution of the flu virus. Similarly, viruses and bacteria evolve resistance to drugs continually. Individuals in many species today are quite different than the individuals in those species a century ago, and we know those differences are genetically based and so must have evolved (the example of the soapberry bug being an exemplar). We can even make other species evolve ourselves. Scientists do such things in the laboratory and in controlled populations in the field all the time, and humans have also been making other species evolve for literally thousands of years. Look at any domesticated animal or plant, and ask where this creature existed in the wild before humans domesticated it. The phenomenon of evolution is irrefutable.

The theory of evolution, like the theory of gravitation or any other scientific theory, is certainly a work in progress. Should this then behoove the legislature to pass a law “requiring the teaching of gravity as a theory in public schools” or the teaching of anything in science “as a theory”?  The scientist in me says, “well of course, theories have a hallowed and revered place in science, and no progress in science is made without well reasoned and well supported theories like those that explain the phenomena of evolutionary change in populations and species.”  But the citizen in me knows that’s not the point.

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  1. P. Constantin

    Explaining Gravity

    The explanation of gravity will lead us to understand the law which describes the nature of all things in the Universe or The Fundamental Law Of the Universe ( F.L.U ).
    In principle, the Fundamental Law of the Universe describes the nature of all things in the Universe inclusive intelligibility and the mechanism of life, providing us with the explanation of the physical objects from the microscopic-scale (quarks,leptons,atoms) to the macroscopic-scale (planets,stars,galaxies,cluster of galaxies) of the Universe. The definition of F.L.U. derives from the behaviour of a system of opposites structured as an mechanism which represents a model for all objects in the Universe. The structure and the way this mechanism behaves are based on the principle of first cause. Knowing the first cause, from which this principle emerged, we can explain all things in the Universe, in the sense that F.L.U provides us with the patterns of similarities for reviling the truth about the reality of all things. From this, we can assume, that a fundamental or elementary particle ( quark,lepton ) forms an mechanism which its structured similar to the mechanism of a planet, star, galaxy and the whole Universe.
    At the macroscopic scale of the Universe, the explanations through this model of mechanism correspond with statistical surveying of the visible structure in the Universe, to the prediction of cosmic microwave background and the bottom up structure formation. Moreover, F.L.U.explains: the various astronomical observations of galaxies and galaxy clusters; the behaviour of the early Universe including the nucleosynthesis process; the behaviour of the later Universe and the expansion process; the cause of the Big Bang; the cyclic model of the Universe and its limits for space and time; all the astronomical observations without recourse to some of the alternative theories (modified gravity,and quantum gravity), and with no need of non-baryonic matter (dark matter and dark energy) to explain the large scale structure of the Universe. Time and space represent the fundamental characteristics of this model of mechanism which explains the various gravitational mysteries from first principles, not through empirical methods. In relation to planet Earth, F.L.U.explains:
    why the magnetic poles are not static, they wonder as much as 15km every year;
    why the magnetic poles change in size and position and are not at directly opposite positions on the globe;
    when geomagnetic reversals occur, and others.
    From the Earth and the Moon interaction, we can explain important observations inclusive the polarisation of gravity.The polarisation of gravity explains the elliptical orbits of planets, the apsides of the planets orbits and more.
    At the microscopic scale of the Universe, F.L.U. provides us with the explanation of all the mysteries arising when we describe how matter and energy behave at the quantum scale in ways that differ from what experience would lead us to expect. The fundamental or the elementary particles (quarks,leptons) that are described in particles physics through the Standard Model are not fundamental, they represent composite systems. Observables like mass and charge of the particles, which in quantum physics are described as numbers without physical meaning, represent in fact significant manifestations of the composed particles as a unitary system. Also, F.L.U. explains why electrons are confined into clearly defined, quantized orbits, and could jump between these, without getting close to the protons or nucleons of the atoms. Quarks charges(+2/3,-1/3)are not the right ones. F.L.U. allow us to observe the grand unification directly in experiments and unify in a simple and elegant way gravity with the other 3 fundamental forces of nature (electromagnetism,weak and strong forces) and explains why the electric charges of electrons and protons cancel each other exactly to extreme precision, as this property is not explained in the Standard Model of particles physics. The model of nature described by the F.L.U. takes an analogous position to quantum physics and classical physics, resulting in the reconciliation of quantum physics and classical physics.
    For understanding gravity, we can begin with direct observations on planet Earth for identifying patterns of similarities in its structure which explain the polarisation of gravity. Each pattern is represented by a couple of forms with the same volume of different or contrary elements. On planet Earth, first such a pattern is found on Earth’s crust, where the oceanic water and the continental crust represent two contrary elements, and from our data we know that water cover 70% of the planet and the continental crust 30% of the Earth surface, but considering that on continent the crust is in average 30 km thick and the oceanic crust is in average 10 km thick, we can assume that the volume of water and the volume of continental crust on Earth’s layer of crust are equals.This pattern of contrary elements ( liquid and water) forms a system of opposites gravitational poles, and this fact can be verified in the interaction of the Moon – Earth system.When the Moon orbit the Earth always faces Earth with the same pole of gravity, that means that the Moon will attract one of the two elements that form Earth’s layer of crust and repel the other. From direct observation we can see that the Moon is repealing the oceans water by observing the shape of the oceans on the globe when the Moon orbits the Earth, also this fact is proved by direct observations of the ocean’s tides, which means low tide when the Moon projection is perpendicular on a spot that we chose on ocean’s surface or ocean’s shore and almost six hours before the Moon reaches that point and almost six hours after the Moon passes that point the tide is up, this is clear evidence that the Moon repeals the water on Earth’s surface. Another pattern of contrary elements that is easy to observe on Earth its represented by the layer of atmosphere, where halve volume of the atmosphere is hot gas during day time and the other halve is cold gas during night time, hot air and cold air as two equal volumes form a system of two contrary elements as gravitational poles of this system. Next system of opposites in describing the Earth its given by the electromagnetic field which extends tens of thousands of km’s into space, with the electric and magnetic fields as two contrary elements for defining the gravitational poles for this system. These three systems of opposites ( the crust layer, the atmosphere layer and layer of the electromagnetic field ) interact each other through gravity, and direct observations of this phenomena come from the fallowing examples:
    The atmosphere, as a system of opposites, changes its position to the Earth’s poles between summer and winter, interacting with Earth’s electromagnetic field, and this explains the 15km migration of magnetic poles every year. With the physical observables that we can measure for the Earth atmosphere and for the Earth electromagnetic field we can succeed in finding the connection of gravity to electromagnetism.
    If the distribution of oceans water and the continental crust changes its ratio between north and south hemispheres of the Earth, can lead to the reversal of Earth’s magnetic poles, and this reversal also occurs if the inner-core and the outer-core of the Earth are changing their tending of rotating relatively faster or slower one to another. Also, the distribution of oceans water and continental crust on Earth’s hemispheres influences the orbit of the Moon.
    All the explanations in relation with planet Earth come from observing the interactions between all the layers and sub layers that form the Earth’s inner system of opposites, and from the interaction of the Earth’s inner system of opposites with the Earth’s outer system of opposites. The inner and outer systems of opposites which are structured in an mechanism, represent a model for all the objects in nature. With this model of mechanism its easy to understand that the interaction between two orbiting celestial bodies in the Universe, means attraction and repulsion between them in the same time. Similar to the Moon showing the same gravitational pole when orbits the Earth, all celestial bodies that orbit in Universe are showing the same gravitational pole to the body which they orbit, and this explains the elliptical orbits of planets. For example, when the Earth orbit the Sun, for halve of the orbit, the Earth and the Sun outer systems of opposites are showing the same poles of gravity which explains the aphelion of the planet Earth, and for the second halve of the orbit the Sun and the Earth outer systems of opposites are showing the opposite poles of gravity, and this explains the perihelion of the planet Earth.
    These observations and all others that we can obtain directly or through experiments will provide us with the knowledges we need in understanding gravity and the principle which govern our Universe.

  2. Dov Henis

    In plain language, not in academEnglish verbiage:

    אבולוציה היא תולדת כח המשיכה

    כל כמות החומר ביקום קבועה מאז החל היקום להשתחזר בפעם האחרונה, מאז ה”אחדיות”האחרונה שלו, מאז גרעין הלידה האחרון של היקום טרום המפץ הגדול האחרון.

    כל תחומי המדע (“דיסציפלינות”) נובעים מן, מתחילים ונגמרים, מתפתחים ונמשכים בהכוונת ובמסגרת כח המשיכה. הכל בכל מכל כל ביקום הוא עקב כח המשיכה.

    כל תצורת חומר ביקום קיימת, בגלל וכמו היקום עצמו, בשני מצבים: במצב אינרטי כגון החומר (כנראה הגרוויטונים, החלקיקים היסודיים של היקום) המאוחסן בחורים השחורים ו/או במצב אנרגטי, בתנועה,המסוגל לכן לבצע עבודה. בגלל שניות זו של חומר-אנרגיה קבועה ביקום גם כל כמות האנרגיה.

    מאז המפץ הגדול האחרון מתחולל בכל תצורות החומר ביקום אותו תהליך החוזר ונשנה אשר מתחולל במכלול היקום עצמו : לידה-התפתחות-הישרדות-שיחזור עצמי . על מנת לשרוד ולעבור את כל התהליך חייבת כל תצורת חומר להישמר במתכונת אנרגטית. היות וכמות החומר/אנרגיה ביקום קבועה מתחרות ביניהן כל תצורות החומר על השגת חומר/אנרגיה כי כל תצורת חומר שורדת, פעילה, רק אם הצליחה “לבלוע” אנרגיה. אם אינה “מצליחה” להשיג אנרגיה היא נבלעת ע”י תצורת חומר אחרת ומשמשת לה אנרגיה. אכול או היאכל.

    Evolution Derives From Gravity

    The quantity of mass in the universe is constant since the universe started its last self-replication, since its last singularity, its last pre-big bang re-birth conception.

    All Science Disciplines derive from, start and end, evolve and survive in the direction and manner set by the framework of gravity, the monotheism of the universe. All things, everything in the universe, derive from the gravity of the universe. Every mass format exists, like the universe itself, in one of two states: in an inert state like the material (most probably the gravitons, the elementary particles of the universe) stored in black holes, and in an energetic state, in motion therefore capable of performing work. Due to this mass-energy dualism also the quantity of energy in the universe is constant.

    Since the last big-bang all mass formats undergo the same cyclic sequence like the universe itself i.e. birth – evolution – survival – replication. In order to survive and to repeat this sequence every mass format must remain in an energetic state. And since the universe mass/energy quantity is constant there is a melee for it by all mass formats, and the unlucky formats are swallowed and digested by the luckier mass formats.
    It’s indeed, in fact, an eat or be eaten universe…

    Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
    http://universe-life.com/
    http://universe-life.com/2011/07/13/greed-cancer-cells-follow-laws-of-evolution/

    • Dov Henis

      Evolution Derives From Gravity, in Hebrew and in plain English, not in academEnglish verbiage

      אבולוציה היא תולדת כח המשיכה

      כל כמות החומר ביקום קבועה מאז החל היקום להשתחזר בפעם האחרונה, מאז ה”אחדיות”האחרונה שלו, מאז גרעין הלידה האחרון של היקום טרום המפץ הגדול האחרון.

      כל תחומי המדע (“דיסציפלינות”) נובעים מן, מתחילים ונגמרים, מתפתחים ונמשכים בהכוונת ובמסגרת כח המשיכה. הכל בכל מכל כל ביקום הוא עקב כח המשיכה.

      כל תצורת חומר ביקום קיימת, בגלל וכמו היקום עצמו, בשני מצבים: במצב אינרטי כגון החומר (כנראה הגרוויטונים, החלקיקים היסודיים של היקום) המאוחסן בחורים השחורים ו/או במצב אנרגטי, בתנועה,המסוגל לכן לבצע עבודה. בגלל שניות זו של חומר-אנרגיה קבועה ביקום גם כל כמות האנרגיה.

      מאז המפץ הגדול האחרון מתחולל בכל תצורות החומר ביקום אותו תהליך החוזר ונשנה אשר מתחולל במכלול היקום עצמו : לידה-התפתחות-הישרדות-שיחזור עצמי . על מנת לשרוד ולעבור את כל התהליך חייבת כל תצורת חומר להישמר במתכונת אנרגטית. היות וכמות החומר/אנרגיה ביקום קבועה מתחרות ביניהן כל תצורות החומר על השגת חומר/אנרגיה כי כל תצורת חומר שורדת, פעילה, רק אם הצליחה “לבלוע” אנרגיה. אם אינה “מצליחה” להשיג אנרגיה היא נבלעת ע”י תצורת חומר אחרת ומשמשת לה אנרגיה. אכול או היאכל.

      Evolution Derives From Gravity

      The quantity of mass in the universe is constant since the universe started its last self-replication, since its last singularity, its last pre-big bang re-birth conception.

      All Science Disciplines derive from, start and end, evolve and survive in the direction and manner set by the framework of gravity, the monotheism of the universe. All things, everything in the universe, derive from the gravity of the universe. Every mass format exists, like the universe itself, in one of two states: in an inert state like the material (most probably the gravitons, the elementary particles of the universe) stored in black holes, and in an energetic state, in motion therefore capable of performing work. Due to this mass-energy dualism also the quantity of energy in the universe is constant.

      Since the last big-bang all mass formats undergo the same cyclic sequence like the universe itself i.e. conception/singularity, birth /big bang – evolution/survival/inflaton/expansion/re-congregating in black holel – replication/repeat singularity etc,. In order to survive and to repeat this sequence every mass format must remain in an energetic state. And since the universe mass/energy quantity is constant there is a melee for it by all mass formats, and the unfortunate formats are swallowed and digested by the fortunate mass formats.

      It’s indeed, in fact, an eat or be eaten universe…

      Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
      http://universe-life.com/

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